IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
JULY 2016
1

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND EVALUATION OF IN VITRO HAEMOLYTIC, THROMBOLYTIC AND ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF AERVA LANATA (L.)

Ramalingam Vidhya1, 2 , Rajangam Udayakumar1*
1Department of Biochemistry, Government Arts College (Autonomous), Kumbakonam-612001, Tamilnadu, India.
2Dharmapuram Gnanambigai Government Arts College for Women, Mayiladuthurai-609 001, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

The present study was aimed to screen the phytochemicals and to determine the in vitro hemolytic, thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extracts of leaf, flower and root of Aerva lanata. The in vitro haemolytic activity of root, flower and leaf of A. lanata was determined against human erythrocytes. Thrombolytic activity of root, flower and leaf of A. lanata was evaluated against human blood clot (thrombosis). The anti-inflammatory activity of root, flower and leaf of A. lanata was studied by membrane stabilization method. The phytochemical analysis of aqueous extracts of A. lanata showed that the presence of bioactive secondary metabolites. The aqueous extracts of root possess minimum haemolytic activity against RBC membrane. So, it can be considered as safe for the human erythrocytes. The maximum level of lyses of clot by root extract of A. lanata was observed, which may be due to the presence of tannins, alkaloids and saponins. The highest protection / stabilization of Human Red Blood Cell (HRBC) membrane by the flower extract of A. lanata were observed. The results of this study confirmed that the medicinal plant A. lanata possess bioactive compounds and in vitro haemolytic, thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory properties. So, we concluded that this study may be helpful in future for the identification of new pharmaceutical drugs from leaf, flower and root of Aerva lanata to treat inflammatory disease, myocardial infarction and other heart diseases.

2

A NEW, SENSITIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF NORFLOXACIN USING 1, 2 – NAPHTHOQUINONE – 4 - SULPHONATE IN PURE AND DOSAGE FORM

Divya N. Shetty1, B. Narayana2*
1St.Aloysius College (Autonomous), Mangalore 575003, India.
2Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri 574199, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

A new, simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of an antibiotic drug norfloxacin (NORFLOX). The method involves the reaction of NORFLOX with 1, 2 - naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) to form a colored chromogen. The absorbance of which could be measured at 461nm. Under the optimized experimental conditions, calibration graph is constructed by plotting the absorbance against the concentration of drug. The method obeys Beer’s law in the concentration range 2.00-18.00 μg mL-1 and the molar absorptivity is found to be 0.597 x 104 L mol-1cm-1. The stability of the product is determined using Turner-Anderson’s method and it is found to be 1.19 x 104. Pure drug is analyzed within the working concentration limits to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the method. The proposed method is applied successfully to determine NORFLOX in tablets. The results are compared statistically with those of the tabulated value at 95 % confidence level. The proposed method can be applied in quality control laboratories for the routine analysis of NORFLOX in pharmaceutical preparations.

3

FORMULATION, OPTIMIZATION AND EVALUATION OF TERBINAFINE HYDROCHLORIDE EMULGEL

Vishwanath K. Morkhande1*, Ram S. Pentewar1, Dr. S. S. Thonte1, Dr. Anoop Singh2, Ravi Rajurkar1, Atish Jadhav1, Sandeep V. Gapat1.
1Channabasweshwar Pharmacy college, Latur-413512.
2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, NIMS, Jaipur.

Abstract

The purpose of present research work was to develop an Emulgels formulation of Terbinafine hydrochloride using carbopol 934 as a gelling agent and propylene Glycol as penetration enhancer for topical delivery with the aim to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism, to improve stability of emulsion, to reduce dosage regimen and enhance residence time in the treatment of fungal infection. Gel formulations generally provide faster drug release compared with conventional ointments and creams but a major limitation is in the difficulty in delivery of hydrophobic drugs. So to overcome these limitations, Emulgels are prepared. When gels and emulsions are used in combined form, the dosage forms are referred as Emulgels. The developed Emulgels were evaluated for their physicochemical properties like color, homogeneity, consistency, spreadability, pH value, drug content; In-vitro drug release was found to be higher for optimized formulation F3 showed 94.12% drug release in one hour as compared to the marketed formulation of cream shows only 63.11% in one hour. Stability study indicated that the physical appearance, drug release in optimized formulation remained unchanged. To ascertain the drug release mechanism the in-vitro release data were also subjected to Higuchis diffusion, Matrix diffusion and the Peppas plots and the it confirms that the calculated r values for Peppas plots were nearer to one except F9 suggesting that the drug released by diffusion mechanism and dissolution behavior was controlled by fickian diffusion.

4

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF IRON OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

Manyasree. D1, Kiran Mayi. P1*, R.V.S.S.N.Ravi Kumar2
1Department of Biochemistry, Acharya Nagarjuan university, Nagrjuna Nagar - 522 510, India.
2Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagrjuna Nagar - 522 510, India.

Abstract

In the present study the Iron Oxide nanoparticles of 35 nm were synthesized using a co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDS. Using agar well diffusion method antibacterial activity of IO nanoparticles was tested against gram-positive (Staphylococus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. IO nanoparticles exhibited strong antibacterial activity against bacterial species.

5

A STUDY TO EVALUATE THE ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY AND DETERMINE LD50 VALUE OF TENATOPRAZOLE IN ALBINO WISTAR RABBITS

Akash A Khobragade*, Snehal P Kosale, Mrityunjay P Khopkar, Sadiq B Patel, Arunkumar Maurya
Grant Govt. Medical College, Mumbai, India.

Abstract

Background: Aim of the study is to evaluate the acute oral toxicity and LD50 value of Tenatoprazole (TP) in albino wistar rats. Methods: 4 groups of 5 male and 5 female rats were drawn. The test drug was given orally at different doses to the groups. Mortality of animals was recorded, clinicotoxic signs observed at decided intervals, body weight taken one day prior to dosing of the drug and then weekly body weight calculated and recorded. Results: Mortality witnessed inGroups TP 750, TP 1000 and TP 1250 with the death toll increasing with subsequent numerical group.Signs of intoxication such as sedation,reduced locomotor activity, drowsiness and lacrimation seen in the last three groups. All surviving animals showed weight gain at day 7 and day 14 compared to baseline values. Conclusion: Increase in dose of Tenatoprazole showed proportionate increase in mortality and incidence of clinical signs. Body weight gain remained comparable throughout study. The results indicate that Tenatoprazole appears to be a safe drug for human use as its LD50 is reasonably high.

6

SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF NOVEL QUINOLINYL PYRAZOLE DERIVATIVES

C. S. Hallikeri, Naveen V. Bevinkatti, Sheshagiri R. Dixit, Venkatarao H. Kulkarni, Ashwini S. Joshi, Shrinivas D. Joshi*
Novel Drug Design and Discovery Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, S.E.T’s College of Pharmacy, Sangolli Rayanna Nagar, Dharwad 580 002, India.

Abstract

A novel series of nitrogen containing compounds were synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial and antitubercular activities. Here we have used Vilsmeier-Hack reaction for the synthesis of our starting material 2-chloroquinoline-3-carbaldehyde (1) by treating acetanilide with DMF-POCl3 complex (Vilsmeier-Hack reagent), thus obtained aldehyde was made to react with substituted acetophenones (2a-i) to form corresponding chalcones (3a-i). These chalcones were cyclized to pyrazolines (4a-i) by reacting with thiosemicarbazide in ethanol. These newly synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral analysis viz., IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectra and also evaluated for their in vitro antitubercular activity using Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) method and exhibited good activity in the MIC range of 1.6 to 25 μg/ml. The in vitro antibacterial activity also showed good activity in the MIC range of 0.8 to 100 μg/ml and by this study we can conclude that the synthesized compounds act as a good antibacterial and antitubercular agents. It was indeed very much encouraging to note that most of the compounds have shown better and significant antibacterial and antitubercular activities. The newly synthesized novel series of substituted quinoline derivatives may be developed into potential class of antibacterial and antitubercular agents in future.

7

IN-HOSPITAL OUTCOME IN PATIENTS WITH ST-SEGMENT ELEVATION MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION THROUGH LEFT VENTRICULAR FILLING PRESSURE ASSESSED BY E/E’ RATIO AS A PREDICTOR

Dr. Syed Fasih Ahmed Hashmi, Dr. Javeria samejo, Dr. Mashooq Ali Dasti, Dr. Zulfiqar Ali Qutrio Baloch, Dr. Gul Hassan Brohi, Dr. Anwar Shaikh, Dr. Syed Zulfiquar Ali Shah
Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences (LUMHS), Jamshoro, Pakistan.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: To determine the in hospital outcome in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction through left ventricular filling pressure assessed by E/E ratio as a predictor. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This observational study was conducted in Cardiology department from august 2015 to October 2015 at LUH Hyderabad. Total seventy subjects with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI) were recruited. MI was diagnosed by WHO criteria while the echocardiography was performed whereas the data was analyzed in SPSS 16. RESULTS: Total patients in group I were 52 and group II were 18. The outcomes with mean ± SD in group-I, cardiac failure 1.88 ± 0.32, arrhythmias 1.83±0.38, Killip class-IV = 1, II =1, I = 4, hospitalization was 3.7 ± 1.01 days and 2.00 ± 0.00 death. In second group, heart failure 1.55 ± 0.51, Killip class-IV = 2, II =3, I = 2, arrhythmias 1.9 ± 0.26, hospitalization was 5.1±1.6 days and 1.94±0.23 death. CONCLUSION: After acute ST segment myocardial infarction left ventricular filling pressure evaluated by Doppler echocardiography can predicts prognosis and in hospital outcomes.

8

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SYNTHESIS OF 1-PHENYL-3-[4-(3-SUBSTITUTEDIMINO-1,2,4-DITHIAZOLO)AMINOPHENYL]-PROP-2-ENE-1-ONES

Dipak T. Tayade1*, Sanghapal S. Padhen2
1Govt. Vidarbha Institute of Science & Humanities, Amravati-444 604(MS) India.
2RajarsheeShahu Science College, Chandur Rly Dist Amravati-444904 (MS) India.

Abstract

A potent series of 1-phenyl-3-[4-(3-substitutedimino-1,2,4-dithiazolo)-amino phenyl]-prop-2-ene-1-ones (IIa-e) was synthesized by the oxidative cyclization of 1-phenyl-3-[4-(5-substituted-2,4-dithiobiureto)-phenyl]- prop-2-ene-1-ones (Ia-e) by using bromine in presence of chloroform and acetone as medium. The structure justification of synthesized compounds was done on the basis of elemental analysis, chemical characteristics and spectral studies.

9

FORMULATION & EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLET OF LANSOPRAZOLE

Dushant S. Kamble*, Ram S. Pentewar*, Apparak V Moholkar, Sandeep Suryawanshi, Sandeep V. Gapat
Channabasweshwar Pharmacy College, Kava Road, Latur-413512.

Abstract

Lansoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) which is an effective and well-tolerated treatment option in the management of acid-related disorders. Lansoprazole fast disintegrating tablet (LFDT) – a new, patient-friendly and more convenient formulation of Lansoprazole which can be taken with or without water – is the first PPI to be made available as an orally disintegrating tablet. It represents an innovative drug delivery system, of Lansoprazole compressed with different superdisintegrants in rapidly dispersing matrix to form a tablet. When the tablet is placed on the tongue and sucked gently it disintegrates rapidly in the mouth, releasing the Lansoprazole which are swallowed with the patient’s saliva without water. Alter- natively, the tablet can be swallowed with a drink of water. Studies have shown that the drug release of LFDT is more rapid as comparable to Lansoprazole tablets 30 mg doses; the indications and recommended dosages for LFDT are therefore identical to Lansoprazole capsules. The new formulation may be of particular benefit to those with active life-styles who do not always have water available, patients who have difficulty in swallowing, and elderly patients.

10

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION FAST OF DISSOLVING TABLET S-AMLODIPINE BESYLATE

Mr. Bhalerao Sachin Shrihari*, Mr. Pentewar R. S, Mr. V. Phanchabai, Mr. P. Bhosale, Miss. V. Gaikwad, Mr. P. Bharti, Mr. Duve. A. B, Mr. Kamble D. S.
Dep. of Pharmaceutics Channabasweshwar Pharmacy College, Latur.

Abstract

Fast dissolving/disintegrating tablets have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical area. Particularly the fast dissolving drug delivery systems formulated with natural polymers have more demand because natural materials like gums and mucilage’s have been extensively used in the field of drug delivery for their easy availability, ease administration, non toxicity, non irritant nature etc. The main aim of the present study is develop the fast dissolving tablets of S-Amlodipine (Levoamlodipine) by using natural and synthetic superdisintegrants like fenugreek mucilage, croscarmellose sodium, crossPovidone with varying conc. by direct compression method excipient compatibility studies were done by FTIR and found there was no interaction between drug and excipient used. The best formulation f4 have shown dispersion time 60 sec. and release was up to 90% Is steriospecific and this enantiomer best fits in receptor and highest therapeutic activity leads to patient Compliance.

11

AN OVERVIEW ON TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY

Abhinay Chhetri1*, Dr.Biplab Kumar Dey2
1Research Scholar, Department of Pharmacy, Assam Downtown University, Guwahati-781026, Assam, INDIA
2Principal, Department of Pharmacy, Assam Downtown University, Guwahati-781026, Assam, INDIA

Abstract

Transdermal drug delivery system is also known as a transdermal patch or skin patch which deliver a specific dose of medication to the systemic circulation. It is a medicated adhesive patch. Morphological, biophysical and physicochemical properties of the skin are to be considered when therapeutic agents are delivered through the human skin for systemic effects. Transdermal drug delivery system can improve the therapeutic efficacy and safety of the drugs because drug delivered through the skin at a predetermined and controlled rate. Skin is the important site of drug application for both the local and systemic effects. Characterization of transdermal patch is use to check it’s quality, size, time of onset & duration, adhesive property, thickness, weight of patch, moisture of content, uniformity & cutaneous toxicological studies. This review article provides an overview of TDDS, its advantages over conventional dosage forms, drug delivery routes across human skin, permeation enhancers, and various components of transdermal patches, types of transdermal patches, methods of preparation and its methods of evaluation.

12

A RARE CASE REPORT ON DRUGs’ ADVERSE REACTION ON SODIUM VALPROATE: UNUSUAL COMPLAINTS OF VERTIGO, DIZZINESS AND INCREASED SALIVATION

Elizabeth Phoeba Paul*, Jasmin Elizabeth Thomas, Josna James, Geethu C, T Sivakumar
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Nandha College of Pharmacy, Erode.

Abstract

Sodium Valproate usage in the field of medicine has been started earlier in the 1960’s. Toxicity has been rising steadily nowadays and its signs and symptoms of include CNS abnormalities, respiratory depression, nausea or vomiting and abnormalities in laboratory investigations include elevated serum Sodium Valproate levels, hypernatremia, elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis, hyperosmolality, hypocalcemia, and hyperammonemia. At this juncture, we report a case with seizures who was given Sodium Valproate and was switched on to Phenytoin due to toxicity as the patient complained of unusual adverse drug reactions.

13

DERCUM’S DISEASE: AN OVERVIEW OF CLASSIFICATION, CLINICALPRESENTATION, DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA AND MANAGEMENT

Ammu A, Babitha Annie Eapen, Jasmin Elizabeth Thomas, Merin Joseph, Apollo James, T Sivakumar
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Nandha College of Pharmacy, Erode, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

Dercum’s disease is a rare disorder described by generalized obesity with painful adipose tissue. The clinical symptoms presented were multiple painful fatty masses, fatiguablity, swelling of fingers, morning stiffness, cognitive dysfunction, headache, anxiety, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, bloating, constipation, easy bruisability, joint aches, muscle aches, mood swing, delirium and dementia. Dercum’s disease affects women more frequently than men. Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alpha-1 antitrypsin, orosomucoid, haptoglobin, compliment factors C3.C4, Clq and Cls have been found in Dercum’s disease. Differential diagnosis includes Fibromyalgia, Madelung’s, Familial multiple lipomatosis, Proteus syndrome, Weber-christian disease, Neurofibromatosis type1, Frohlich syndrome, Lipodystrophia andMetabolic disorders. The diagnosis is made clearly when the differential diagnoses have been excluded. The main goal of treatment in Dercum’s disease includes the pain reduction with surgical interventions (liposuction, excision), pharmacological therapies (analgesics, membrane stabilizing agents, corticosteroids, calcium channel modulators, methotrexate and infliximab, Interferon α-2b) and other alternative such as Rapid cycling hypobaric pressure and Frequency Modulated Electromagnetic Neural Stimulation. We propose a review on definition, classification, pathophysiology, diagnostic methods and treatment.

14

RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF TRANEXAMIC ACID AMONG PARTURIENTS AT INCREASED RISK FOR POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE UNDERGOING CESAREAN DELIVERY IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL AT RIMS KADAPA

Dr. T. Lakshmi Suseela1*, Dr. S. Jaya Jyothi2, Dr. P. Rabbani3, Dr. Chb. Jhonsi4
1*Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh.
2P. Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh.
3Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, RIMS, Kadapa. Andhra Pradesh.
4Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, RIMS, Kadapa. Andhra Pradesh.

 

Abstract

Objective: To assess the effects of tranexamic acid among patients undergoing cesarean delivery who were at high risk of postpartum hemorrhage for Obstetrics and Gynaecology department in RIMS Kadapa. Methods: Between August 1, 2014, and April 30, 2015, a randomized controlled trial was performed at a tertiary care teaching hospital at kadapa. Women undergoing an elective or emergency cesarean delivery who were at high risk for postpartum hemorrhage were enrolled. They were randomly assigned using sealed, opaque envelopes to receive 10 mg/kg tranexamic acid or normal saline 10 min before skin incision. Anesthesiologists were not masked to group assignment, but patients and obstetricians were. The primary outcome was need for additional uterotonic drugs within 24 h after delivery. Analyses were by intention to treat. Results: Thirty patients were assigned to each group. Additional uterotonic drugs were required in 7 (23%) patients assigned to tranexamic acid and 25 (83%) patients in the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Intravenous tranexamic acid, administered before skin incision, significantly reduced the requirement for additional uterotonics among women at increased risk for postpartum hemorrhage.

15

IN VITRO ANTI - CLASTOGENIC ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF ROOT OF LAWSONIA INERMIS ON CALF THYMUS DNA MOLECULE BY GEL ELECTROPHORESIS

MinaBasirian*, V. Ch. Jeevani, S. N. Manjula, K. Mruthunjaya
Department of Pharmacology, J.S.S College of Pharmacy, J.S.S University, Mysore-15, India.

Abstract

Back ground: Most of the mutations are due to clastogens, hence finding the potent anti-oxidants which inhibit the mutation is very important. In vitro anti-clastogenic activity of different fractions (extraction) of roots of Lawsonia inermis (LI), on calf thymus DNA, against cigarette smoke, CYCLO (cyclophosphamide) and hydroxyl radical as clastogens, were studied. These clastogens lead to breakdown of the DNA molecule and mutation, hence present study focused on effect different fractions of LI which are having anti-oxidants property to prevent DNA strand break. Methods: Anti-clastogenic activity of different fractions of LI namely ethyle acetate (LIEAC), alcoholic (LIALC), petroleum ether (LIPET), buthanol (LIBUT) and aqueous (LIAQ) were evaluated on calf thymus DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis against CYCLO (cyclophosphamide), cigarette smoke and hydroxyl radical (Fenton reaction) as clastogens. DNA strand after exposure to different clastogens were breaking, based on different clastogens , formation of different sized breakage of DNA were observed on UV illumination with help of dye. Here the clastogens were breaking the DNA stand and prevention of the breaking down was observed for different fractions of LI. Results: Protection (inhibit the breaking of DNA strand) of Calf thymus DNA against Fenton reaction, CYCLO, cigarette, smoke induced damage was observed in all the fractions of LI due to their anti-oxidant activity, but LIEAC , LIALC and LIBUT showed more protective activity ,and reduced the DNA strand break Conclusion: LI fractions showed protective and anti-clastogenic activity against clastogens which induced mutation. The protective activity of different fraction was due to anti-oxidant property which is directly related to total phenolic and flavonoid content but still further investigation required to claim the protective activity of these fractions.

16

STUDY OF DRUG-DRUG INTERACTION IN MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

Safdar M*, Nataraj G.R, Nivil Joseph, Neethu George
SJM College of Pharmacy, Chitradurga, Karnataka, INDIA – 577502.

Abstract

Many drugs are going to be prescribed in patients who admitted to medicine department. These drugs are capable of causing a number of adverse drug-drug interactions (DDI) some of which may be fatal. Polypharmacy is one of the leading cause of DDI in patients. Thus DDI associated with these drugs may lead to non-compliance and at times discontinuation of therapy. To evaluate drug-drug interactions in patients admitted in medicine department. It is a prospective-observational study. This study included hospital out-patients treated in Medicine department. Data was collected from the medical records of In-patients which includes patient’s demographic details, medication history, social history, treatment chart, status and drug-drug interaction is assessed by using micromedex and other tertiary resources and documented in a suitably designed data collection form. A total of 200 patients were enrolled in the study in that 36% are belonging to age group 31-50. More patients were males.41.5% moderate interactions and 11.5% mild interactions were found. Number of drugs prescribed and age is playing an important role in drug-drug interaction.

17

A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF GYMNEMIC ACIDS AND EXTRACT OF SYLVESTRE FOR ITS ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY

Vasukeshetty1, Kalakotla Shanker2, Jayaveera3, Venkatesham Allenki*
1Mallareddy Pharmacy College, Dhulapally, Maisammaguda, Hyderabad.
2Centre for Pharmaceutical Sciences, IST, JNT University Hyderabad.
3Science Tech Foundation, Anantapuram, Andhrapradesh.
4SVS Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ramaram, Warangal.

Abstract

The present study is designed to evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of Gymnemic acids and extract of sylvestre on alloxan induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Gymnemic acids of sylvestre significantly decrease the blood glucose levels (p < 0.0001) as compared with hyperglycemic control. Current work focuses on potency of gymnemic acid in treating diabetes over crude extract of sylvestre. Present study reveals that among the gymnemic acids and extracts and Gymnemic acids-II & IV have shown significant antidiabetic activity and a hypolipidemic activity in alloxan induced and normal rats. Current study may conclusively state that the Gymnemic acids-II & IV seem promising for the development of a phytomedicine for diabetes mellitus.

18

EVALUATION OF SILVER BIO-NANOPARTICLES SYNTHESIZED WITH THE MEDIATION OF ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA FRUIT EXTRACT ON BACTERICIDAL COMPATIBILITY AND SEED VIABILITY

N. Vasanth1*, G. Melchias1, P. Kumaravel2
1St. Joseph’s College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli-620 002, Tamil Nadu, India.
2Vysya College, Salem-636 103, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Nanoparticles that are synthesized via green methods have become a substantial source of molecules for alternative diagnosis and treatment strategies in medical industry. The conventional methods of synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) are often negated by the inconsistency in the process and also being a source of aggressive toxic levels in the environment. Our investigation demonstrates the potentials of silver nanoparticles synthesized with the mediation of Zizyphus jujuba to be ecofriendly and advantageous over their counterparts of similar methods. Their evaluation for bactericidal compatibility makes new ways of production of stable NPs. The NPs were characterized using UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The Green mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles which shows maximum zones of inhibition against human pathogens and it also enhance the seed germination growth of Vigna unguiculata, Macrotyloma uniflorum and Lablab purpureus.

19

EFFECT OF PECTIN-TAGGED SILVER NANOCOMPOSITE ON A-72 CANCER CELL LINE

Emmanuel U. Nwakwasi1, Baisakhi Moharana2, M. Parthiban3, S. P. Preetha2
1Department of Biotechnology, SRM University Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu, India.
2Department of Veterinary Pharmacology & Toxicology, Madras Veterinary College, Chennai, India.
3Department of Animal Biotechnology, Madras Veterinary College, Chennai, India.

Abstract

The pectin-tagged silver nanocomposite was explored for its antitumor properties against A-72 (Canine fibroblast tumor) cancer cell line. Pectin is a natural polysaccharide found in high amounts in most cell wall of plants. It is non-toxic in nature and functions as both intercellular and intracellular cementing material in addition to its chemo-preventive and anti-tumor activities against some aggressive, recurrent cancers. Thus, to improve the efficacy of pectin and to reduce the dose, it was conjugated into a silver nanocomposite. The synthesized silver nanocomposite, pectin powder and pectin-tagged silver nanocomposite were analyzed by high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis Spectroscopy, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency so as to determine the size, morphology, stability and various functional groups of the composite. Their possible anticancer activity against A-72 cancer cells were further evaluated by MTT cytotoxicity Assay. The Zeta Potential analysis of the synthesized AgNPs and pectin-tagged silver nanocomposite were found to be +59.2 mV and –25.9 mV respectively which indicate a good and fair stability. Conclusively, with an average diameter of 42nm revealed by HR-SEM, the pectin-tagged silver nanocomposite exhibited a very significant cytotoxic effect on A-72 cancer cell line when compared with the standard anticancer drug (Fluorouracil/5-FU) by attaining a maximum inhibition percentage of 85.88% which is comparable to 88.88% of fluorouracil/5-FU. This clearly indicates the antitumor efficacy of the synthesized nanocomposite when conjugated with pectin and thus, proved to be a potential anticancer drug.

20

ESTIMATION OF ANTI-DIABETIC TENELIGLIPTIN HYDROBROMIDE HYDRATE BY RP-HPLC AND DERIVATIVE SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD

Sohan S. Chitlange*, Diptee G. Rawat, Sneha Chandani
Dr. D.Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Pimpri, Pune- 411018 (Maharashtra), India.

Abstract

Simple, accurate, precise and economical HPLC and UV method has been developed and validated for the estimation of teneligliptin hydrobromide hydrate (THH) in bulk and tablet dosage form. Isocratic elution at the flow rate of 1.0 ml/min was employed on a Kromasil 100-5-C8 column at ambient temperature. The mobile phase consisted of Methanol: 0.025M phosphate buffer pH adjusted to 3 with o-phosphoric acid (60:40 v/v). The detection wavelength was at 254nm. Linearity was observed in the concentration range of 10-100 μg/ml. The retention time for Teneligliptin was 4.14 min. In stability testing, teneligliptin was found susceptible to alkali hydrolysis and oxidatative degradation. Because the method could effectively separate the drug from its degradation products, it can be used as a stability indicating method. First order derivative UV spectrophotometric method was also developed using methanol as solvent at analytical λ 261.0 nm. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 5-50 μg/ml and r2 =0.9996. The proposed methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines. Both the developed methods are accurate and precise and can be used for routine quality control analysis of Teneligliptin in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. In case of HPLC as well resolved peak is obtained for Teneligliptin after degradation, method is also suitable for stability studies.

21

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LIPOSOMAL GEL CONTAINING ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY – KETOCONAZOLE

Deevan Paul*, Vothani Sarath Babu
Division of Pharmacy, Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupathi.

Abstract

Liposomal carriers, well known for their potential in topical drug delivery have been chosen to help fungal infections in the skin layers. A development of system which controls the release and enhances the bioavailability of Ketoconazole, an fungal activity is in demand. In the present work statistical study for the formulation of Liposomes for topical delivery of Ketoconazole Liposomal gel using the factorial design approach was undertaken. Ketoconazole, Soya lecithin, Cholesterol were dissolved in mixture of chloroform and methanol (9:1) were taken in different levels and liposomes were prepared using thin film hydration technique. Gel containing Liposomes for optimised batch were prepared in Carbopol® 940. The FT-IR spectroscopy study was carried out to check out the compatibility between the drug Ketoconazole and the excipients used for the preparation. These include average particle size and size distribution, shape, encapsulation efficiency, Percentage drug content, In-vitro drug release study. The compatibility study of the prepared Ketoconazole Liposomes showed no interaction between drug and excipients. The size of liposomal formulations ranged from 3.278- 19.688μm. The entrapment efficiency of drug increased when molar ratio of lipid to cholesterol was changed from 1:1% Drug content of liposomal formulations obtained shows 94.6 - 99.2% drug content. Liposomal dispersion and gel were found to increase the skin permeation and deposition compared to control and marketed gel. Hence it can be concluded that Ketoconazole can also be loaded in liposomal carriers which found to be effective, stable and can be preceded for further future studies.

22

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF GASTRORETENSIVE FLOATING TABLETS OF VENLAFAXINE HCl

N. Lakshmi Prasanthi*, Ayya. Rajendra Prasad, K. Durga, M. Durga Nageswara Rao
Nirmala College of Pharmacy, Atmakuru, Mangalagiri-522503.

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to develop the gastro retentive floating tablets of venlafaxine HCl is an antidepressant which are designed to increase the gastric residence time, thus prolonging the drug release in the present study The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique using different polymers like HPMC K4M, Carbopol 940 and sodium bicarbonate as gas generating agent. The prepared tablets were evaluated for different parameters like hardness, friability, uniformity of weight, in vitro buoyancy studies, and in vitro dissolution studies. The FTIR studies revealed that there was no interaction between the drug and excipients. The tablets containing weight variation of 0.17mg±0.15mg to 0.62mg±0.36mg, hardness of 4.2kg/cm2±0.34kg/cm2 to 5.2kg/cm2±0.63kg/cm2, percentage friability was found to be less than one, thickness of 3mm±0.27mm to 4.6mm±0.025mm, venlafaxine HCl released 92.25±2.9 to 93.35±2.1% of the drug at the end of 10th hour by in vitro release study. The formulation F9 was selected as an optimized formula because it gave best results in terms of the required in vitro buoyancy study, good floating integrity, and drug release in sustained release manner and best fitted to zero order release kinetics with r2 value of 0.94.

23

HPLC SEPARATION OF PIDOTIMOD ENANTIOMERS USING BETA-CYCLODEXTRIN BASED CHIRAL STATIONARY PHASE

Madhuri Baghel, Sadhana J. Rajput*
Quality Assurance Laboratory, Centre of Relevance and Excellence in Novel Drug Delivery Systems, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shri G.H. Patel Building, Donor’s Plaza, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Fatehgunj,Vadodara-390002, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

A simple, sensitive, specific, precise, and rapid isocratic chiral RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for estimation of R and S enantiomers of Pidotimod, a potent dipeptide immunomodulator. The separation was achieved with LICHROCART CHIRADEX (150×4.6mm, 5μm) column at wavelength of 215 nm. The mobile phase was ammonium acetate buffer and methanol in the ration of 85:15 at flow rate of 0.8 ml/ min. The developed method was validated as per ICH guideline which was linear over the range of 50-250 μg/ml with LOD and LOQ of 1.2072 and 3.6583 respectively. The %RSD for repeatability and Intermediate precision was found to be less than 2. The elution of enantiomeric peaks of Pidotimod was further confirmed by LC-MS/MS analysis. The developed method could be utilized for estimation of pidotimod enantiomers.

24

FORMULATION, DEVLOPMENT & CHARECTERIZATION OF ORAL FAST DISSOLVING FILM OF LEVOCETRIZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE

Sandeep V. Gapat1*, Prof. Ram S. Pentewar1, Dr. Anoop Singh2, R. D. Ingole3, Vijayananda Khadkutkar1
1Channabasweshwar Pharmacy College, Kava Road, Latur-413512.
2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, NIMS, Jaipur.
3Gurukrupa Institute of Pharmacy, Majalgaon.

Abstract

Aim of the present study was to develop the Fast Dissolving Oral Films of Levocetirizine Hydrochloride, a non sedative antihistamine drug. Chemically, Levocetirizine is the active enantiomer of Cetirizine. Fast dissolving oral films deliver drug directly in the vascular system and bypasses the hepatic first pass metabolism so dose of the drug may also reduce significantly. Fast dissolving films were prepared using solvent casting method, hydrophilic polymers (HPMC15cps, HPMC15cps) were selected as film forming agents and propylene glycol was used as plasticizer to give flexibility to the films. In FT-IR study no interaction was observed between drug and the excipients. Blank films were prepared and evaluated. Concentration of polymer was optimized during preliminary studies. Three blank films were selected for the incorporation of drug. After characterization the drug loaded films and studying their disintegration time & In-Vitro drug release studies, among the formulations F1-F18, F2, F8, F10 & F18 was selected the best formulation as its disintegration and dissolution time was less and it release drug to a greater extent compared to other formulations with minimum time. As dose of the drug gets reduced from 5 mg to just 2 mg, therefore adverse effects of the drug may also get reduced. Therefore fast dissolving oral films can play an important role in oral drug delivery.

25

IN-VITRO ANTI-HELMENTHIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF CALOTROPIS GIGANTEAN

N.Saikrishna*, G. VijayaKumar1, V. L. Sravani, S. VR. SatyaDeepthi, S. S. Margarate, P. chandana. V. Ratnakumari
A.K.R.G.College of Pharmacy, Nallajerla, AP.

Abstract

The present research work is carried out to evaluate the invitro antihelminthetic activity of aqueous leaf extract of calotropis gigantean. The various concentrations of aqeous leaf extract of calotropis giganteant was prepared in 20mg,40mg and 60mg/ml and tested in invitro study on Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma), Albendazole was taken reference standard drug in different concentrations 20mg, 40mg and 60mg/ml whereas distilled water as control. The time taken for paralysis and death of worms were recorded. Dose dependent antihelmintic activity was observed for aqueous leaf extract. The antihelmintic activity of calotropis gigantean found was better than the standard drug.

26

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF 1-PHENYL-3-[4-(2-SUBSTITUTEDIMINO-4-SUBSTITUTEDIMINO-1,3,5-DITHIAZINO)AMINOPHENYL]-PROP-2-ENE-1-ONES

Dipak T. Tayade1*, Sanghapal S. Padhen2
1Govt. Vidarbha Institute of Science & Humanities, Amravati-444 604(MS) India.
2Rajarshee Shahu Science College, Chandur Rly Dist Amravati-444904 (MS) India.

Abstract

Recently in this laboratory series of 1-phenyl-3-[4-(2-substitued imino-4-substituted imino-1,3,5-dithiazino)-aminophenyl]-prop-2-ene-1-ones (VIIIaa-ae)had been synthesized by the interaction of 1-phenyl-3-[4-(5-allyl-2,4-dithiobiureto) phenyl]-Prop-2-ene-1-ones (Va) with various isocyanodichlorides (VIIa-e) in acetone medium. The reaction mixture was reflux 4 hours and filtered in hot condition. After distillation of excess of solvents crystals were isolated out, this on basification with ammonium hydroxide gave product The structure of all synthesized compounds were justified on the basis of chemical characteristics, elemental analysis and spectral studies.

27

AN IMPACT OF EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS REPORTING TO AMC-PvPI AMONG NURSES IN TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

Venkata RamaRao Nallani*1, Dr.Rama Rao Nadendla2, Dr. Zahedabano3
1Faculty of Pharmacy, Pacific Academy of Higher Education & Research University, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India.
2Professor & Principal,Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guntur.
3Professor & HOD, Dept of Pharmacology, Guntur Medical College, Guntur.

Abstract

Educational intervention was evaluated by using Chi square test & Fischer exact test in graph pad prism version (6.0). RESULTS: A total 180 nurses were involved in Pre KAP and Post KAP survey questionnaire. The overall response rates between pre intervention and post intervention was statistically significant for nurses (P value < 0.0001) show the effectiveness of intervention for improving the awareness among the nurses. CONCLUSION: Imparting the knowledge and awareness of Pharmacovigilance among healthcare professionals by means of continuous educational intervention would bring update knowledge of practice for drug safety and reporting the adverse drug reactions to AMC-Pvpi centers.

28

ESTIMATION OF SERUM CYSTATIN C IN NORMAL HEALTHY POPULATION

Pallavi Mahajan1, K S Sodhi2, Jasbir Singh2, Sunita Manhas2
1Government Medical College, Jammu, J&K, India.
2Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Mullana, Ambala.

Abstract

Cystatin C is a low molecular weight cationic cysteine protease inhibitor encoded by the CST3 gene. It is ubiquitously expressed at moderate levels. It is freely filtered at the glomerulus and completely reabsorbed and catabolised by tubular cells. It is found in cerebrospinal fluid, seminal fluid, milk, synovial fluid, saliva, tears, urine, and blood plasma. The concentration of serum cystatin C in healthy adult individuals ranges between 0.8-1.2 mg/L depending upon the analytical method used. Cystatin C production has been reported to be unaffected by age, gender, or muscle mass. They exert several immunomodulatory functions by controlling the activity of cysteine proteases. The serum levels of cystatin C have been reported to be unaffected by age, gender, or muscle mass. Cystatin C, a reliable marker of renal function, is not only associated with renal disease, but also associated with obesity, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and thyroid disorders. The present study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, M.M Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Mullana, Ambala in which the levels of serum cystatin C were estimated and compared in both the genders. The mean level of cystatin C was found to be 0.75 mg/L in the normal healthy individuals and it does not vary with gender. Hence, Cystatin C requires an internationally approved reference preparation so that a single reference range can be established.

29

PHYTO-CONSTITUENTS AS A LEAD MOIETIES FOR ALZHEIMER’S: A MINI REVIEW

Nehru Sai Suresh Chalichem, Praveen TK, MVNL Chaitanya, Neelamma G, Duraiswamy Basavan*
JSS College of Pharmacy (Constituent College of Jagadguru Shri Shivarathtreeswara University, Mysore), OOTY-643001, INDIA.

Abstract

Ayurvedic medicine is a system of traditional medicine, which is native to India, and Ayurvedic practitioners have developed a number of medicinal preparations and surgical procedures for the treatment of various ailments. Till date we don’t have, effective therapy to successfully prevent neuronal cell death in neurodegenerative diseases, for which currently no curative treatment is available and research focuses on drugs for slowing disease progression or providing prophylaxis. However, Ayurveda has numerous plants with amazing and outstanding properties even though few actions of herbs that are described in Ayurveda are quite new to the conventional medicine. Polyphenolic compounds, found in various types of plant parts like fruits, dry fruits, plant extracts, wine, and tea, that are antioxidant by nature having useful prophylactic properties for the treatment of excitotoxic and oxidative cell death. As an additive to various excellent reviews, which explains and highlight the therapeutic effect/efficacy of herbals as potent neuro modulators, here with we have given various phyto-constituents that can drag the attention to treat AZ. Even though there are many herbal constituents which have been proved to increase cognitive abilities here we have included the constituents that have been tested against AZ insult.

30

EXPLORING SHAT DHAUT GHRITA AS FORMULATION BASE FOR THE TOPICAL DELIVERY OF CURCUMA AMADA

Shivprasad H. Majumdar, Ajit S. Kulkarni, Nagesh H. Aloorkar, Mahesh D. Shinde
Satara College of Pharmacy, Satara, New Additional MIDC, Degaon, Satara, 415004, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Shat dhaut ghrita (SDG) is very popular in Ayurvedic system of medicine which is having potential as a topical product for treatment of skin diseases; it needs evaluation in modern scientific parameters. Curcuma amada (mango ginger) is a plant of the ginger family Zingiberaceae and is closely related to turmeric. Traditionally it is used as pain reliever in day to day household remedies; hence to give a scientific rationale to traditional claim, this drug is taken as drug for study. Suitability of Shat dhaut ghrita as a base was evaluated by testing it through different parameters like acid value, ester value, pH etc. Cream is prepared by dispersing 0.2% Curcuma amada in Shat Dhaut Ghrita as base. Cream formulation is evaluated by checking its organoleptic properties, spreadability coefficient and extrudability. Cream formulation was tested for anti-inflammatory study in animal model and that was compared with marketed formulation containing synthetic drug. From the results, it was found that developed cream shows better (11.72%) inhibitions of paw volumes than the marketed one (7.80%). Results of the study reveal that formulated cream containing Curcuma amada in Shat dhaut ghrita could be a better formulation in treating inflammation topically compared to available topical formulations containing synthetic NSAIDs.

31

AN EFFICIENT NOVEL RESOLUTION OF DESMETHYLCITALOPRAM / BROMO DESMETHYLCITALOPRAM BY USING DI-P-TOLUOYL-D-TARTARIC ACID: A KEY INTERMEDIATES FOR ESCITALOPRAM COMMERCIAL SYNTHESIS

Narsihma Reddy Bobbali1,2, Garimella. K. A. S. S. Narayan1,2*, Ranjith kumar. S, Umar khan Mohammed1, Muniprasad M.2, Mamatha Bobbali1
1Chemical Research and Development Department, APL Research Centre-II, Aurobindo Pharma Limited, Survey No.71&72, Indrakaran Village, Sangareddy Mandal, Medak Dist -502 329, Telangana, India.
2Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad-500085, Telangana, India.

Abstract

The present research work reported here covers an innovation approach to synthesis the enantiopure Escitalopram, a widely used anti-depressants by involving four-step process viz., (i) desmethyl reaction of Citalopram / bromo Citalopram. (ii) Resolution of desmethylcitalopram /bromo desmethylcitalopram using Di-p-toluoyl-D-Tartaric acid (DPTTA) in methanol, which is subsequently given novel key intermediates to eventually give Escitalopram by means of diastereomeric salt formation and further, optimized the novel resolution condition and other key factors. The most striking feature of this process in the addition of specific quantity of methanol and all the optimized parameters of the resolution process details are discussed. (iii) Isolation of Desmethyl Escitalopram / Bromo desmethylescitalopram (iv) This step pertains to enantiomerically pure desmethylescitalopram on alkylation with formaldehyde give active pharmaceutical ingredient 1 with good yield (75-78%) and quality. (v) Another enantiomerically pure Bromo desmethylescitalopram on alkylation with formaldehyde and formic acid, followed by cyanation affords 1 with good yield (~70%) and quality. In the present research study describes the commercially feasible new synthetic process of Escitalopram 1 by the novel resolution of desmethylcitalopram/ bromo desmethylcitalopram with good yield and quality of the product.

32

DRUG UTILISATION PATTERN IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

Vikneswari1,2 , T. Tamizh Mani*1
1Bharathi College of Pharmacy, Bharathi Nagar, Mandya, Karnataka, India.
2Faculty of Pharmacy, PG studies, Pacific University, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India.

Abstract

Chronic Respiratory Diseases (CRD) such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) may account for an estimated burden of about 100 million individuals in India. The technique of drug utilization review (DUR) can provide useful means of determining whether drug use is as appropriate in treatment of individual patients. This was a Prospective study with the aim of analyse the drug prescribing pattern in Chronic obstructivepulmonary disease patients and the prescribing parameters in the collected prescription. The study has been conducted on male and female patients who were satisfying the inclusion criteria. A suitably designed case record form was prepared and used to record all the necessary and relevant data from the medical records of patients. A total of 250 patients were analysed in our study. Out of that 188 were males and 62 were females. The prescription of more than 3 drugs for one patient may be attributed to the possibility of some patients presenting with acute and chronic exacerbation of COPD with or without co-morbid conditions, which requires antibiotic and corticosteroid treatment. Antibiotics were mostly prescribed (19.2%), followed by anticholinergics (18.70%). Inhalation route (38.32%) was more preferred over parenteral (37.98%) and oral route (23.70%). In our study, we observed that the incidence of COPD was more common in males when compared to females. The majority of patients have intermittent exacerbations of COPD due to the inadequate pattern of drug use. GOLD guidelines can be properly followed for prescribing drugs for COPD and can be achieve total control of COPD.

33

TRANSDERMAL UNANI FEMALE CONTRACEPTIVE FORMULATION: DESIGNING AND IN-VITRO TRANSDERMAL ACTIVITY EVALUATION

Tarannum*1, Mohammad Idris2
1Research Associate, Central Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Lucknow, India.
2Head of Department of Ilmus Saidla and Ilmul Advia, Ayurvedic & Unani Tibbia College & Hospital, Karol Bagh, New Delhi, India.

Abstract

The transdermal drug delivery system has an important place in the medical field. This delivery system has several advantages over the oral and parental route of drug administration. The concept of transdermal drug delivery system was already exists in the Unani system of medicine. Several dosage forms for transdermal drug delivery system in single as well as in compound formulation were mentioned in the classical literature of Unani system. Unani medicine is enriched with several drugs honored to possess antifertility property. Unani antifertility agents are recommended for both- male and female as oral and/or local application. Several single drugs as well as compound formulations are mentioned in Unani classical literature to control the fertility. With this background an effort was made with two objectives. First was to design a transdermal Unani female contraceptive formulation (TUFCF) based on four ingredients i.e. Leaves of Henna (Lawsonia inermis), rhizome of Pakhanbed (Bergenia ciliata), Sibr (Latex of Aloe barbadensis) and Khar-e-Chirchita (Achyranthes aspera). Secondly to evaluate in-vitro transdermal penetration potential of the TUFCF by Franz diffusion cell method, qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitatively the test formulation reveals significant presence of phytochemicals by chemical test method. Quantitatively it showed 35.07% release across the membrane. Hence, it was concluded that the test formulation possessed the transdermal activity.

34

ANTIBIOTICS SENSITIVITY AND RESISTANCE STUDIES AGAINST E.COLI IN KHAMMAM REGION

Suresh Kumar. P*, Niharika Kanuri, V. Tejaswi Sahithi, Keerthipriya Duggi, Satish Chandra Aithamraju, Sireesha A, Jagannath Patro V.
Department of Pharm.D, Browns College of Pharmacy, Khammam, Telangana, India.

Abstract

Background: We conducted an analysis on the identification of all bacteria that are isolated in urine and blood samples, over a period of one year in Khammam region. Methods: Analysis was performed on the identification of bacteria. Results: A total of 570 samples were isolated from the samples of both males and females of different age groups. In females of age groups below 20 years, between 20-40 years and above 40 years, E.coli was equally resistant to Amoxicillin (15%), Erythromycin (15%), Amikacin (15%), Norfloxacin (15%), Cotrimaxazole (15%), Cefuroxime (15%), Ciprofloxacin (15%) and it is sensitive to Azithromycin (40%), Moxifloxacin (40%), Nitrofurantoin (25%), Netilmycin (15%). In males of age groups below 20 years, between 20-40 years and above 40 years, E.coli was resistant to Cephalexin (25%), Nitrofurantoin (20%), Cefuroxime (20%), Cefotaxime (15%), Amoxicillin (15%), Doxycycline (15%) and it is sensitive to Moxifloxacin (28%), Ceftriaxone (25%), Ciprofloxacin (25%), Amikacin (25%), Ofloxacin (15%). Conclusion: We found that many of the antibiotics became resistant against E.coli and only few of the antibiotics are sensitive against E.coli.

35

“FIGHT PSORIASIS NATURALLY THROUGH AYURVEDA”

Papola Vibhooti*1, Dr. Kumar Ashok1, Sah Shilpa1, Nautiyal Himani1
Shri Dev Bhoomi Institute of Education Science & Technology, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.

Abstract

Herbs have been one of the important and unique sources of medicines from the dawn of human civilization. Psoriasis is a common skin condition where the skin develops areas that become thick covered with silvery scales. It is a common problem, and millions of people in the world have psoriasis. Pathophysiology of the disease includes mainly the activation and migration of T cells to the dermis triggering the release of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha TNF-alpha, in particular) which lead to the inflammation and the rapid production of skin cells. The possible factors and triggers causing psoriasis include emotional stress, skin injury, systemic infections, certain medications and intestinal upsets. The herb which are used in the psoriasise disease are Aloe Vera (\Aloe barbadensis), Olive Oil (Olea curopaea), Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Coleus (Coleus Forskohlii), Cayenne (Capsicum annuum) etc. Conclusion: These plants are being used for curing many diseases as such in raw condition rather the being prepared as formulation; Standardization is an essential parameter to be done. It is a vital step in formulation since it determines the quality of the product and is essential to develop a protocol on standardization of every product available in the market to avoid variation arising between batch to batch.

36

NEPHROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BOUGAINVILLAE SPECTABILIS LEAVES AGAINST GENTAMYCIN INDUCED RENAL DYSFUNCTION IN WISTAR RATS

V. Thushara Bindu*, S. Nelson Kumar, C. Rajaram, P. Ranga Swamy, S. Shabana
Dept. of Pharmacology, P.Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Utukur, Kadapa, A.P.

Abstract

The current study aimed at evaluating the protective effects of Bougainvillae spectabilis (Nyctaginaceae family) on renal dysfunction of Gentamycin induced wistar albino rats using biochemical approaches. Pinitol, betacyanine, flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids are the constituents reported for B. spectabilis. Nephrotoxicity is considered a prominent side effect of Aminoglycoside antibiotic, Gentamicin. The drug was induced intra peritoneally at a dose of 80 mg/ kg body weight for 9 days. One of the main factors in for Gentamycin induced Nephrotoxicity is the Oxidative stress. Ethanolic extract of B. spectabilis decreased the increased levels of blood urea, serum creatinine, urinary protein, and extent of renal dysfunction at dose levels of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight in wistar albino rats.

37

ANTI-CANCER ACTIVITY OF SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM BAUHINIA VARIEGATA LINN. LEAF – AN IN SILICO APPROACH

Gayathri Gunalan 1*, K.Vijayalakshmi 2, T.Tamilvannan3 and Waheetha Hopper3
1Siddha Regional Research Institute (CCRS), Kuyavarpalayam, Puducherry -605013.
2Department of Biochemistry, Bharathi Women’s College, Chennai-600108.
3Department of Bioinformatics, School of Bioengineering, SRM University, Kattankulathur-603203.

Abstract

Plants and plant derived products are used for human healthcare since the dawn of human civilization. About 80% of modern drugs are from natural origin. Many dreadful diseases like cancer are treated using drugs of natural origin. In the present study, a medicinal plant B.variegata linn. leaves were investigated for its anti - colon cancer activity using COLO 320 cell lines. The active fractions were isolated by bioactivity guided fractionation and subjected to GC-MS analysis to identify the bioactive compounds. The aim of the present study was to identify potential lead compounds against various protein targets that are involved in colon carcinogenesis using molecular docking approach. 3D structures of compounds reported from GCMS analysis of active fractions of B.variegata were built using Chemsketch software. All the compounds analyzed exhibited anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, antineoplastic, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. Docking studies were performed using Glide (Grid-based Ligand Docking with Energetics) Extra Precision (XP) 5.7 algorithm in Schrodinger Software Suite, 2011 analysis. Among the 33 ligands of the active fractions, eight ligands were found to have least glide score. Thus, the phytochemicals from the active fractions of B.variegata leaf was found to have appreciable anti-cancer activity.

38

A REVIEW ON NOVEL APPROACH OF ANTIFUNGAL EMULGEL FOR TOPICAL DELIVERY IN FUNGAL INFECTIONS

Jasmeen Kaur, Jotinder Kaur, Sandhya Jaiswal, Ghanshyam Das Gupta*
A.S.B.A.S.J.S.Memorial College of Pharmacy, Affiliated to Punjab Technical University, Bela (Ropar), Punjab, India. Pin-140111.

Abstract

Fungal infections of the skin are one of the mostfrequentlychallengeddermatological diseases in world. Topical therapy isbetter choice for the treatment of cutaneous infections.The key feature of topical delivery is direct approachability via skin as a target for treatment resultingto increase in bioavailability and deductionin side effects. Currently, conventional creams and gel preparations are commercially available for topical treatment. Gels have a majorrestraint for delivery of hydrophobic drugs. So, to overcome this constraint, an emulsion based approach is considered. Emulgels are combination of gel and emulsion techniqueand have a high ability to penetrate the skin.It has emerged as one of the most prevailing delivery systems for hydrophobic drugs due to their dual control release system i.e. gel and emulsion.The main objective is to develop jellified emulsion to decrease the systemic side effects and to create pronounced effect with lower doses of the drug.In recent years there has been great interest in the use of novel polymers with complex function such as emulsifier and thickeners.The gelling capacity of these compounds allows stable formulation by decreasing surface, interfacial tension resulting in increase in viscosity of aqueous phase. Various permeation enhancers can potentiate its effect.So, the present review concludes that emulgels are most promising system having major advantages on conventional systems, as a result it can be explored for topical drug delivery.

39

MUCOADHESIVE VAGINAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: AN OVERVIEW

Amandeep Kaur*, Ramandeep Kaur, Sandhya Jaiswal, Ghanshyam Das Gupta
A.S.B.A.S.J.S. Memorial College of Pharmacy, Affiliated To Punjab Technical University, Bela (Ropar), Punjab, India. Pin- 140111.

Abstract

There are various routes of drug delivery, the vaginal route of drug delivery have many advantages due to large permeation area of vagina, having rich vascularization, no first pass metabolism, prolongation of drug action, even distribution of drug and relatively low enzymatic activity. Several studies have shown that the vaginal cavity is an effective pathway for drug administration rather than other conventional system for vaginal infection treatments. It has the potential to deliver the drugs for systemic effects and uterine treatment. The commercial preparations like creams, foams, gels, irrigations and tablets, are inserted in the vaginal cavity for a relatively short period of time and required to ensure the desired therapeutic effect. The vaginal route appears is highly appropriate for bioadhesive drug delivery systems in order to retain drugs in vagina for treating largely local conditions, or for use in contraception. Boiadhesives are mainly used for sexually-transmitted diseases. Bioadhesive therapeutic systems have been developed in the form of semi-solid and solid dosage forms to prolong the residence time of in vaginal cavity. Mucoadhesive polymers such as chitoson, pectin,synthetic polyacrylates, polycarbophil, cellulose derivatives, carrageenan, hyaluronic acid derivatives, pectin, sodiumalginate, and tragacanth, are responsible for forming hydrogels. The present article is a comprehensive review of the mucoadhesive vaginal drug delivery systems.

40

A VALIDATED STABILITY INDICATING HPTLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CANDESARTAN CILEXETIL AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE

Ramesh Jayaprakash*, Dr. Senthil Kumar Natesan
JKK Munirajah Medical Research Foundation’s- Annai JKK Sampoorani Ammal College of Pharmacy, Komarapalayam, Namakkal -DT, Tamilnadu, India.
Affiliated to: The Tamilnadu DR. M.G.R. Medical University, Chennai- 600 032.

Abstract

Candesartan cilexetil is an angiotensin-receptor blocker, is marketed in combination with hydrochlorothiazide, which is a diuretic acting on distal convoluted tubule; for synergistic anti-hypertensive action. The present study deals with development and validation of a stability indicating HPTLC method for simultaneous estimation of candesartan cilexetil and hydrochlorothiazide using TLC aluminum plate Pre coated with silica gel 60 F254(make: Merk) and the mobile phase comprising ethyl acetate: toluene: methanol: glacial acetic acid (5:2:3:0.1 v/v/v/v). Hydrochlorothiazide and candesartan cilexetil were well resolved with Rf 0.06 ± 0.027 and 0.19 ± 0.031, respectively. The wavelength selected for the quantization was 260 nm. Results: Stress testing for both the drugs was carried out according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines Q2 (R1). The method was successfully validated according to ICH guidelines Q2 (R1). The linear regression analysis indicated a good linear relationship over the concentration range of 160 – 960 ng/spot and 125 – 750 ng/spot for candesartan cilexetil and hydrochlorothiazide respectively, with correlation co efficient value of 0.9993 and 0.9987 for candesartan cilexetil and hydrochlorothiazide respectively. The accuracy of the method was established based on recovery studies. The LOD of candesartan cilexetil and hydrochlorothiazide were found to be 2.1988 and 1.9369 ng/spot and the LOQ of candesartan cilexetil and hydrochlorothiazide were found to be 0.6631 and 5.8723 ng/spot. Among various stressed conditions, candesartan cilexetil and hydrochlorothiazide showed considerable degradation under all the conditions but they are within the limit. The degraded products of hydrochlorothiazide and candesartan cilexetil were well resolved from the individual bulk drug response. Conclusion: The developed method is found to be simple, specific, precise and stability indicating. The specificity of the method was confirmed by peak purity profile of the resolved peaks.

41

ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF TRADITIONAL COSMETICS IN OUAZZANE REGION, MOROCCO

Amina Slimani*, Chadia Sekkat, Abdelhamid Zaid

Valorisation of natural resources Unit, Faculty of Sciences, B.P. 11201 Zitoune, Meknès, Morocco.

Abstract

This article aims to bring together different knowledge about the most frequently used traditional cosmetics in Ouazzane region. These were collected during surveys of herbalists, users, traditional practitioners and specialists. Cosmetic and curative uses were targeted on each studied product. The ingredients of the majority of these traditional cosmetics are known: mainly medicinal and aromatic plants. The surveys were conducted in Ouazzane region (north of Morocco) in order to establish a catalog of traditional cosmetics and gather all the information regarding their therapeutic uses. The results allowed us to identify different recipes used for various body parts, such as skin (33.07%), hair (24.35%), mouth (24.11%) or the eyes (18.46%). The reason for using these traditional products varies from one person to another, but is usually protection (49.20%), grooming (46.98%) or cosmetic purposes (3.80 %). It appears that traditional cosmetics are important in the care system and beauty of Ouazzane population.

42

RECENT ADVANCES IN TOPICAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

Jotinder Kaur, Jasmeen Kaur, Sandhya Jaiswal, Ghanshyam Das Gupta*

A.S.B.A.S.J.S. Memorial College of Pharmacy, Affiliated to Punjab Technical University, Bela (Ropar), Punjab Pin-140111.

Abstract

Optimum therapeutic outcomes requires not only proper drug selection but also effective delivery of drug. Over the past three decades, controlled drug delivery has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. The pharmacological response, i.e desired therapeutic and undesired therapeutic effect of a drug depends on concentration of drug reached to its site of action and in turn depends on dosage form. With conventional drug delivery systems, poor patient compliance is a major problem observed in clinical practice. Human skin is a readily accessible surface of drug delivery. The potential of using skin as a target has been recognized but its outermost layer acts as a barrier to the ingress of materials allowing only small molecules to penetrate over a period of time. Recently various strategies has been used to evade the stratum corneum and to increase flux through the skin membrane using different permeation enhancement techniques.  For a drug to be delivered passively via skin needs to have enough lipophilicity and also a molecular weight less than 500 Da. These requirements have restricted the number of commercially available commodities based on transdermal or dermal delivery. Therefore the key function of a topical delivery system is to enhance the dermal permeability enabling it to cross the epidermis and retain in the dermis. The aim of this paper is to review non-invasive topical drug delivery employing sophisticated carrier systems leading to advancements in dosage forms.

43

APPRAISAL OF POTENTIALLY INAPPROPRIATE MEDICATIONS AND WHO PRESCRIBING INDICATORS IN ELDERLY PATIENTS IN A NEUROPSYCHIATRY SETTING USING BEER’S CRITERIA-2015

Ansu Anna Dan*, Geethu C, Josna James, Supriya A, Hemalatha S, Dr. Sivakumar T

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Nandha College of Pharmacy, Erode, Tamil Nadu.

Abstract

Potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) is described as a drug in which the risk of an adverse event when there is a safer alternate therapy is available. Beer’s criteria which is used as a guideline describes medications or medication classes, which are potentially inappropriate and need to be avoided or to be used with caution for elderly. WHO has established a set of core prescribing indicators for improving the rationality of drug use. Our aim is to evaluate the use of potentially inappropriate medications and prescriptions using WHO prescribing indicators in elderly. A prospective observational study was carried out in the neuropsychiatry government run tertiary care hospital in Northern India over a period of 3 months from January 2016-March 2016 using Beer’s Criteria and WHO prescribing indicators.Out of 1128 study subjects 56.1% were male and 43.9% females. The findings revealed that 73.3% PIM’sconstituting Anticonvulsants (23.5%), Benzodiazepines (15.6%), Antipsychotics (11.9%), Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (7.8%), Anticholinergics (7.4%), Tricyclic Antidepressants(6.7%) were predominantly prescribed. As supportive medications Vitamins, Minerals, Laxatives, Proton Pump Inhibitors were also given at a high rate of 26.7%. The assessment of WHO prescribing indicators includes average number of drugs per patient was 3.1%, 72% in generic name, percentage of antibiotics encounters were 2.1% while 1.6%. Percentage of encounters with injection and only 62% drugs were from Essential Drugs List (EDL). It is evident from our study that the neuropsychiatric diseases are treated mostly with PIMs and continuous assessment of prescription is necessary to improve the rationality of drug use.

44

MIDFACIAL BONE FRACTURE: DETERMINING THE ETIOLOGY,SITES OF FRACTURE AND DIFFERENT TREATMENT APPROACHES

Dr. Bikash Desar1, Dr. Rajani Shakya2

1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kantipur Dental College Teaching Hospital and Research Center.

2Community Medicine, Kathmandu University.

Abstract

Objective: The main objective of this study was to locate the fracture of midface and treatment modalities of the same through different approaches. Materials and methods: The patients treated for midfacial bone fractures at the oral and maxillofacial surgery department of Kantipur Dental College Teaching Hospital and Research center during a two-year period between January 2014 and December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed for age, sex and type of injury, cause of fractures, consciousness status and alcohol abuse during trauma. Results: 304 patents were included in the study, 183(60%) males and 121 (40%) females, with a total of 412 fractures. Physical assaults were the most common cause both in young patients and adult patients (43 %) and (47%) respectively. Commonest fracture sites were buttress (32%) and zygomatic arch (20%) in young patients and zygomatic arch (34%) and fronto-zygomatic suture (30%) in adults. Midface fractures is generally treated by mini plate osteosynthesis (69%) both in young and adult patients. Conclusion: This study revealed that the main cause of midfacial fracture is physical assault both in young and adult patients (43%) and (47%) followed by falls (37%) and (22%) respectively. Preventive health care programs should seek measures in the reduction of aggression and violence in close future involving family, school and community institutions.

45

EVALUATE THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND FT-IR SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF PURIFIED β-GALACTOSIDASE FROM ASPERGILLUS TERREUS

B. Vidya, M. Palaniswamy, S. Sowmya, S. Priyanga, P. Chella Perumal, K. Devaki, V. K. Gopalakrishnan*

Karpagam University, Karpagam Academy of Higher Education, Karpagam University, Coimbatore.

 

Abstract

Aim: To evaluate the antioxidant activity and FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of β-galactosidase from newly isolated fungal strain, Aspergillus terreus. Methods: In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by different assays, including reducing power assay, 2,2-diphenylpicryl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2,2'azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS•+) assay, hydroxyl radical activity (OH.), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide radical (NO), superoxide radical scavenging assays using ascorbic acid as a standard. The functional groups were analyzed by using FTIR spectroscopy. The FT-IR spectrum in the mid-infrared region 4000–400 cm–1 was used for discrimination and to categorize various functional groups present in β-galactosidase. Results: The findings indicated that the β-galactosidase posses antioxidant activities were significantly increased, comparable with that of the standard ascorbic acid, in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: The results revealed that β-galactosidase from newly isolated fungal strain Aspergillus terreus have promising antioxidant activity and it further exploration for their potential effective use.

46

EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT, ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITY BY IN-VITRO STUDIES IN A TRADITIONAL HERB OLDENLANDIA AURICULARIA.

Jolly John*, Sooraj K, Roshima K, Sufina Mol
KTN College of Pharmacy, Chalavara, Palakkad (District), KUHS University, Kerala. India.

Abstract

Oldenlandia auricularia, (Rubiaceae) is a herb locally seen in kerala, which is traditionally used for the treatment of many diseases, but not yet evaluated this plant, medicinal activities through various research and studies. In view of its related species research activities in mind, our research work focused on this herb Oldenlandia auricularia to reveal its medicinal use. As we know that nowadays bacterial, viral, parasitic infections, various inflammations leads to several changes in the cell and induces free radical formations which causes a number of alterations, gene mutations and gene modifications, leads to disruption of cellular processes which may contributes to several diseases particularly cancer in the world. The investigation on this plant focused on its invitro studies, showed the inhibition of free radical scavenging activity, antibacterial effect by disc diffusion method, anti-inflammatory process by a dose dependent decrease in the protein denaturation and proved its anticancer activity by MTT assay.

47

IMMUNOCHROMATOGRAPHY: FORMATS AND APPLICATIONS

Cherian Sebastian1*, Helen William2
1Scholar, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Govt. Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, India.
2Assistant Professor, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Govt. Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, India.

Abstract

Immunochromatography is a combination of chromatography and immunoassay. In this technique, the antigen-antibody reaction which occurs on a membrane is used to determine the target analyte in the sample. For this the specific biomolecule against antigen or antibody of interest is impregnated in a membrane usually made of nitrocellulose along with some dyes which produces respective coloured lines according to the presence or absence of target analyte. The method has widespread application in detecting large kind of molecules including poisonous substances, pathogens in their smallest levels, hormones, etc. By the application of this principle, presence of disease causing organism in the body can be detected in early stages at a relatively lesser cost. This review article provide an overview on principle, working, formats, advantages, disadvantages and some of the important applications of immunochromatography.

48

MOLECULAR DOCKING STUDIES OF SOME NOVEL PYRROLYL CARBOXAMIDE DERIVATIVES

Shrinivas D. Joshi*, Sheshagiri R. Dixit, Bheemsen Yenni, Chennabasappa S. Hallikeri Venkatrao H. Kulkarni
Novel Drug Design and Discovery Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, S.E.T.’s College of Pharmacy, Sangolli Rayanna Nagar, Dharwad 580 002, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

The antibacterial target, enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase, is a homotetrameric enzyme that catalyzes the last reductive step of fatty acid biosynthesis. In the present paper, Surflex docking has been carried out on a series (17 compounds) of enoyl ACP reductase inhibitors, using the SYBYL-X 2.0 package (Tripos Inc., St. Louis, USA). Surflex-docking studies revealed that the carboxamide linkage was significant for binding to the receptor, and it is also found that the pattern of binding of tested compounds is same as that of the 2H7M ligand, this in turn helped to understand the specific activity of compounds. The main outcome of this study states that which functional group is responsible for binding with the amino acid at the active site of the enzyme and also tells what type of modification to be done to get even better interaction and binding at the active site of the enzyme.

49

A REVIEW ON DIETETICS IN AYURVEDA

Dr. V. R. Chakravarthy. Nathamuni*, Dr. Ch. Ravikumar
Dept. of DRAVYAGUNA, Dr. BRKR Govt. Ayurvedic Medical College, S. R. Nagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh-50003.

Abstract

Food is the essential component for living a healthy life. This is placed in Triopastambhas (Nidra, Ahara, and Brahmacharya) in ancient classics because of its great importance. The importance of food is not only confined for maintenance of health, but also it has much more prominence in management of various Patho-Physiological conditions and those related with Psychological aetiology also. This food has been said as Mahabhaishajya (Chief/Major food) by Acharya Kashyapa. In the present era, people are willing to know about the Dietetics as they are getting awareness about the importance of Food and Nutrition in maintenance of good health, and prevention of diseases. The present work is about Ahara (Contemporary Food) for different Prakriti individuals Vata, Pitta, Kapha, Dwandwaja prakritis and Sama prakriti (Persons of different constitutions). The balanced diet of Ayurveda includes “Shashtika shali dhanya, Mudga, Saindhava, Amalaka, Yava, Aantariksha jala, Ksheera, Ghrita, Jangala mamsa, Madhu”. The above mentioned food can be taken as Balanced diet regimen according to Ayurveda which should be followed by every individual to maintain flourishing life. In my paper, My Core of work is a review about, Balanced diet in Ayurveda Different contemporary foods suitable for different Prakriti persons. Focus on the dietetics helps preventing many life threatening diseases and decreases the medical bills and economic burden on the society. It’s moreover like a personalised healthcare if we follow the diet restrictions said for different Prakriti persons.

50

MICROSPONGE: A NOVEL APPROACH IN GASTRO-RETENTION DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (GRDDS)

Snehal Patel*1, Chintan Aundhia1, Avinash Seth1, Nirmal Shah1, Kartik Pandya1, Dhruvi Patel2, Harshal Sheth2
1Department of Pharmacy, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth, Piparia, Vadodara.
2Department of Pharmacy, Pioneer Pharmacy Degree College, Vadodara.

Abstract

Oral controlled release dosage forms face several physiological restriction like inability to retain and position the controlled drug delivery system within the targeted region of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) due to fluctuation in gastric emptying. This results in non‑uniform absorption pattern, inadequate medication release and shorter residence time of the dosage form in the stomach. As the fallout of this episode there is inadequate absorption of the drug having absorption window predominantly, in the upper area of GIT. These contemplations have provoked to the development of oral controlled release dosage forms with gastroretentive properties. Microsponge hold certification as one of the potential approaches for gastric retention. Microsponge are porous spherical empty particles without core and can remain in the gastric region for delayed periods. They significantly increase the gastric residence time of medication, thereby enhance bioavailability, improves patient compliance by reducing dosing frequency, lessen the medication waste, enhance retention of medication which solubilize only in stomach, enhance solubility for medications that are less soluble at a higher pH environment. In the present review method of preparation, characterization, advantages, disadvantages and applications of floating microsponge are discussed.